Multivariate analysis of the essential oil components of the genus Citrus and their antifungal activity.
The essential oils and their chemical components were analyzed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA). The chemical identification and quantification of the essential oils based on gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) displaying various substances correlated each other with limonene being the most predominant compound. We were able to clusterize the essential oils in three groups based on multivariate analysis. The first Citrus sinensis (orange) and Citrus reticulata (ponkan), the second Citrus limonia (lemon lime) and the third Citrus aurantifolia (lime) and Citrus medica (citron). Using the concentration 2000 μg mL-1, the essential oil of the third group inhibited mycelial growth completely of the fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Alternaria alternata. On the other hand, using the same concentration, only the essential oil of the citron was able to inhibit the mycelial growth completely of fungi Colletotrichum musae. The study of essential oils is an important step to find and develop new biotechnology products using in the control of pests and other biotic (living) factors.
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